Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Whey Protein increases Glucose carriers for greater muscle glycogen replenishment. By Veeraj Vic Goyaram

Supplement Research Update

Whey Protein increases Glucose transporters for greater muscle glycogen replenishment
By Veeraj Vic Goyaram
I am very pleased to report this study because it involves Glucose Transporters in skeletal muscle, the same molecules that I do research in.  In this study, researchers from the University of Campinas in Sao Paulo showed how whey protein improves glycogen (stored muscle carbohydrate) replenishment following exercise, allowing improved recovery. They showed that this happens by improved activity of glucose transporters named GLUT4 in a rat model which received whey protein following exercise.

What is GLUT4?
The main transporter of glucose in muscle is Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4). GLUT4 is found inside the cell in the resting state of the cell. After a meal or after an exercise bout, these GLUT4 molecules move to the surface of the cell  where they take up glucose from the bloodstream. The fact that exercise can do this is fantastic news for diabetics and exercising individuals because it means better blood glucose control and muscle glycogen replenishment, respectively. If you need more info on the topic please contact me.
In the right picture you can see that the GLUT4 molecules (stained in green) have moved to the surface of the cell following exercise or a meal. This movement allows glucose to be taken up by the cell from the bloodstream. 

What the researchers did
The researchers, Morato and colleagues had three groups of rats fed experimental diets containing  (A) Casein, (B) Whey Protein and (C) Whey protein Hydrolysate. The animals were subjected to exercise protocol (60min of treadmill running at a speed of 15m/min) and then sacrificed 16 hours later. Their muscles were taken out and analysed.

What was found and what are the implications?
  • In rats fed Whey protein and Whey protein hydrolysate, GLUT4 levels on the cell membrane was higher following after exercise compared to rats fed casein. 
  • This increased level of GLUT4 at the cell surface membrane allowed more glucose to be taken up after exercise for better recovery and the replenishment of muscle glycogen used during exercise.
  • This research study shows the importance of taking a whey protein supplement post training although further research is needed in this topic in human athletes and in diabetics because the latter have reduced GLUT4 movement to the cell membrane.
Exercise increased GLUT4 protein levels in the muscle cell membrane in
all rats. However, this increase was more pronounced in rats fed whey protein and whey protein hydrolysate than rats fed casein

Anything you don't understand or want to know more? 
Please free to drop me a line on vicgoyaram@gmail.com. Don't go ask the wrong persons. 

Reference

Morato PN, Lollo PC, Moura CS, Batista TM, Camargo RL, Carneiro EM, Amaya-Farfan J. Whey protein hydrolysate increases translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane independent of insulin in wistar rats. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 30;8(8):e71134.

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My Bio: I am a Mauritian originally from Roche Bois, Port Louis and now based in Cape Town, South Africa where I am busy with my postgraduate studies in molecular biology of exercise. My research, supervised by Prof. Edward Ojuka, looks at the influence of nutrition and exercise in gene expression in muscle, research which is relevant and applicable to exercising individuals, sports persons and diabetic individuals. The knowledge that I share with you stems from my 18 years of experience in bodybuilding and 8 years (and counting) of university education in the field. I have also published work in the American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism (2013), International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (2013) and co-authored two book chapters on exercise and diabetes. I also presented my research work at the 2012 International Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference (UK). I am grateful to each and everyone at the UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. "Knowledge without sharing is worth nothing"
------------------------------------------
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©,2013, Veeraj Goyaram, Bodybuilding Mauritius. Any reprinting in any type of media is prohibited.
Disclaimer: The Content on this site is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action. BODYBUILDING MAURITIUS is not a medical or healthcare provider and your use of this site does not create a doctor / patient relationship. We disclaim all responsibility for the professional qualifications and licensing of, and services provided by, any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of something you read on this Site. We offer this Site AS IS and without any warranties.  Correspondence: vicgoyaram@gmail.com
_______________________________________________________________________________

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Caffeine allows you to get more reps and feel less pain. By Veeraj V. Goyaram

Supplement Research Update

Caffeine: Less Pain and More Gain.
By Veeraj V. Goyaram


In this edition of our Supplement Science Update Bodybuilding Mauritius brings you a latest scientific study which further backs the efficacy of Caffeine as a workout booster. It is interesting to note that most caffeine-performance studies were done with aerobic-type exercise and it is nice to see some studies that concern us, iron enthusiasts. The study I report here was done in people who lift!

Duncan and colleagues from Coventry University in England looked at what caffeine, taken at 5mg/ kg body weight, does to:

a. The number of reps performed until failure is reached.
b. The perception of pain while repping to failure.

Findings:

a. More reps thanks to caffeine: For the four exercises tested (bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat), caffeine allowed participants to get more reps until failure (19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 respectively in caffeine and placebo groups). 

b. Less pain perceived: the perception of muscle pain was also lower in the caffeine group in all exercises. The the scientists among you I am including this nice little graph below. 

Add caption
Some important lessons:
  • Caffeine is a great resistance training booster. That is why most preworkout supplements have caffeine as the main ingredient. Most of the other ingredients are just for show on the labels. I said most, not all.  
  • Caffeine works by reducing the perception of pain.
  • 5mg/kg of Caffeine may be a bit high for certain people. The authors accept that they must look at smaller doses. You must also experiment to find your appropriate dose. 
  • If you don't have the cash for expensive preworkout formulas (neither do I), get hold of coffee or inexpensive caffeine tablets. 
Click to read larger abstract. Email me if you want full article

Reference

Duncan MJ, Stanley M, Parkhouse N, Cook K, Smith M. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13(4):392-9

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My Bio: I am a Mauritian originally from Roche Bois, Port Louis and now based in Cape Town, South Africa where I am busy with my postgraduate studies in molecular biology of exercise. My research, supervised by Prof. Edward Ojuka, looks at the influence of nutrition and exercise in gene expression in muscle, research which is relevant and applicable to exercising individuals, sports persons and diabetic individuals. The knowledge that I share with you stems from my 18 years of experience in bodybuilding and 8 years (and counting) of university education in the field. I have also published work in the American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism (2013), International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (2013) and co-authored two book chapters on exercise and diabetes. I also presented my research work at the 2012 International Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference (UK). I am grateful to each and everyone at the UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. "Knowledge without sharing is worth nothing"
------------------------------------------
Join us for discussions on our facebook group
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Your #1 Bodybuilding destination in Mauritius 
_________________________________________________________________________
©,2013, Veeraj Goyaram, Bodybuilding Mauritius. Any reprinting in any type of media is prohibited.
Disclaimer: The Content on this site is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action. BODYBUILDING MAURITIUS is not a medical or healthcare provider and your use of this site does not create a doctor / patient relationship. We disclaim all responsibility for the professional qualifications and licensing of, and services provided by, any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of something you read on this Site. We offer this Site AS IS and without any warranties.  Correspondence: vicgoyaram@gmail.com
_______________________________________________________________________________

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Your Holiday Fitness Program. By Ashley Laounni Kaniah

Your Holiday Fitness Program
By Ashley Laounni Kaniah

For all the youths who are idle at home during this end of year holidays. How about doing something good for 30 days and look good before your new year 2014 where you will surely and definitely consume loads and snacks and drinks

SACRIFICE NOW AND ENJOY LATER

Easy workouts routine since you all are at home

Morning all 7 days of the week

30-45 mins cardio either bicycle or treadmill and try to work your abs and obliques everyday especially through hanging leg raises and crunches
  • Day 1 abs
  • Day 2 obliques
  • Day 3 abs
  • Day 4 obliques and so on working abs and obliques alternately

Evening

Monday leg
Tuesday chest
Wednesday bicep tricep calves
Thursday shoulders
Friday back
Saturday & Sunday OFF

Dieting

Try to cut out on fizzy drinks for these 30 days....remember sacrifice today and earn your results tomorrow...
 No rice or pastas
  • Go for wholewheat bread
  • Eat plenty of fruits
  • Since its summer keep urself hydrated
  • Lay off the salt and salty meals a bit and try to savour ur meals in their natural flavour
  • Lay off food that holds too much water such as cucumber...eat lettuce leaves instead


This ONE month sacrifice will surely make you look fitter and healthier in your XMas & New Year snaps

Don't miss out your cardio and if possible do a lighter and low intensity one in the evening if you can so as not to cause muscle depletion

Even though you guys are not training on weekend DON'T forget your cardio which is important

For all those youths who do not have huge money to spend on protein powders and go om strict dieting this will surely help you get an edge and change you for the NEXT 30 DAYS


GIVE IT A TRY IF YOU WANT

About the Author
Ashley is a bodybuilder and fitness enthusiast from Schoenfeld, Riviere du Rempart, Mauritius. He recently won the -90kg category at the NBBF 2013 Mr. North in his first competitive outing.  Besides his involvement in the Iron world, Ashley is active in the legal profession as Junior Legal Assistant. He holds an LLB(Hons) degree. Get in touch with him via his Facebook profile

Do you also want to submit an article or even a paragraph?
YOU ARE MOST WELCOME!


Want to know my most trusted supplement resource?
The book below is Vic's Bible!

CLICK HERE TO BUY
That would be your greatest investment!
I am an affiliate of examine.com. If you buy the book I get a little
commission. This allows me to bring you more great FREE articles.
Science delivered to your doorstep from someone who does the research in the exercise/ nutrition lab, who lifts and understands you.
------------------------------------------
Join us for discussions on our facebook group
Free advice & daily bodybuilding talk
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_________________________________________________________________________
©,2013, Veeraj Goyaram, Bodybuilding Mauritius. Any reprinting in any type of media is prohibited.
Disclaimer: The Content on this site is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action. BODYBUILDING MAURITIUS is not a medical or healthcare provider and your use of this site does not create a doctor / patient relationship. We disclaim all responsibility for the professional qualifications and licensing of, and services provided by, any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of something you read on this Site. We offer this Site AS IS and without any warranties.  Correspondence: vicgoyaram@gmail.com

________________________________________________________________________________

Friday, November 1, 2013

High Protein Diets & Health. By Veeraj Vic Goyaram

Nutrition Science

High Protein Diets & Health
Do they affect your Liver and kidneys?

Researched and Composed by Vic Goyaram
Bodybuilding is full of myths and a common one concerns the health effects of high protein diets. Along the same lines as "Bodybuilding makes the penis small", "Creatine damages the kidneys" and the like, high protein diets have been said to compromise the function of the liver, kidneys, the cardiovascular system, the skeletal system and God knows what else. Shockingly, the medical community have adopted these myths as facts, much to the disregard of scientific literature which proves otherwise. If a bodybuilder presents to a medical practitioner for some ailment, chances are high that his high protein diet will be put to blame. Most nutrition and dietetics books are full of these myths, as well. 

In this article we will attempt to shed some light on the effect of high protein diet on liver and kidney function. 

High Protein Diets and Liver function

The liver breaks down excess amino acids by the process of deamination. Therefore, the more amino acids from proteins consumed in excess of what we need, the greater the burden placed on the liver and the greater the risk of liver damage, right? 

The TRUTH: WRONG! The truth is that there is no evidence that this happens although there is an upper limit to how much amino acids your liver can degrade. That limit is very high anyway. On the contrary, high protein diets that good amounts of BCAAs are useful to treat liver diseases like cirrhosis (Suzuki et al., 2004).  Furthermore, it is a well known fact that unhealthy habits like overindulgence in sugar-sweetened beverages and booze can cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cirrhosis respectively. However, nobody bats an eye and gives lectures to people drowning themselves in these crap. Open a tupperware full of chicken or drink a whey protein shake and everybody loses their minds. Suddenly, your whole entourage turns into hepatologists (liver experts).
High protein diets do not negatively affect liver function
High Protein Diets and Kidney function

A high protein diet increases the output of ammonia which must be excreted by the kidneys in the form of urea. It has been hypothesised, therefore, that a high protein diet is detrimental to the kidneys because of the extra work they are made to do in that regard. People who suffer from renal problems are often placed on low protein diets in order to avoid this "burden" on the kidneys. The big question remains, does a high protein diet affect the kidneys of individuals with NO existing kidney problems?

The TRUTH: There is no evidence that a high protein diet affects negatively affects renal function even at the high intakes common among bodybuilders. Studies have compared bodybuilders consuming high protein (2.8g/kg bodyweight) with athletes consuming moderate amounts of protein and found that no significant difference in kidney function between these two groups (Poortmans et al., 2000).  A high protein intake may affect kidney function in people with existing renal problems but we cannot go further and say that this will also happen in healthy individuals.  Research published this year in the American Journal of kidney disease (Jurashchek et al., 2013) showed that a long term high protein diet does not negatively affect kidney function in healthy adults.

The consensus among medical scientists is that 
"it is uncertain that kidney health is affected by the long term consumption of a high protein diet and that there is no reason to restrict protein intake in healthy individuals"

If your medical doctor still scares you with the dangers of high protein diets then please invite him to keep up to date with scientific research (list of relevant articles below). Even if he asks "whether you know more than him" at least you did your part. 

..Certainly not damage your kidneys if you are healthy
Future articles will look at other aspects of the health effects of high protein diets. If you have any question, drop me a line! If there is anything complicated in whatever I write please also drop me a line. As always I'd be glad to assist.

References

Suzuki K, Kato A, Iwai M.  Branched-chain amino acid treatment in patients with liver cirrhosis.  Hepatol Res.  2004 Dec;30S:25-29.

Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O. Do regular high-protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes? Int J Sports Nutr 2000;10:28-38.

Juraschek SP, Appel LJ, Anderson CA, Miller ER 3rd.Effect of a high-protein diet on kidney function in healthy adults: results from the OmniHeart trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 Apr;61(4):547-54. 


--------------------------------------
Want to know my most trusted supplement resource?
The book below is Vic's Bible!
CLICK HERE TO BUY
That would be your greatest investment!
I am an affiliate of examine.com. If you buy the book I get a little
commission. This allows me to bring you more great FREE articles.
Science delivered to your doorstep from someone who does the research in the exercise/ nutrition lab, who lifts and understands your needs.
--------------------------------------
My Bio: Passion for exercise physiology brought me all the way from Roche Bois, Mauritius to Cape Town, South Africa. I am currently doing postgraduate studies in molecular biology of exercise. My research, supervised by Prof. Edward Ojuka, looks at the influence of nutrition and exercise in metabolic gene regulation in muscle, research which is relevant and applicable to exercising individuals, sportspersons and diabetic individuals. My knowledge stems from my 18 years of experience in bodybuilding and 8 (and counting) years of university education in the field. I have also published work in the American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism (2013), International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (2013) and co-authored two book chapters on molecular mechanisms of exercise in type 2 diabetes treatment. I also presented my research work at the 2012 International Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference (UK). I am grateful to each and everyone at the UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. "Knowledge without sharing is worth nothing"
------------------------------------------
Join us for discussions on our facebook group
Free advice & daily bodybuilding talk
Your #1 Bodybuilding destination in Mauritius 
_________________________________________________________________________
©,2013, Veeraj Goyaram, Bodybuilding Mauritius. Any reprinting in any type of media is prohibited.
Disclaimer: The Content on this site is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action. BODYBUILDING MAURITIUS is not a medical or healthcare provider and your use of this site does not create a doctor / patient relationship. We disclaim all responsibility for the professional qualifications and licensing of, and services provided by, any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of something you read on this Site. We offer this Site AS IS and without any warranties.  Correspondence: vicgoyaram@gmail.com
________________________________________________________________________________

Sunday, October 20, 2013

How Tom Platz Built Those Legs

How Tom Platz Built Those Legs
Article from Musclemag International
Just starting out, I trained with Olympic lifters who taught me a reverence for the squat. They taught me that this is where life and death passes before your eyes, that this is the altar of weight lifting. But when I first came to Gold's in Venice the squat rack was cluttered and shoved in the back, an nobody used it. Sure, Arnold and Ed Corney used it in Pumping Iron, but that was more for show. When I started squatting a lot, people said I shouldn't because it would throw off my balance and symmetry. I did it anyway.

Because it was so taxing, I squatted only twice a month. It was like you were attempting something superhuman. To prepare for it, I'd get up at 5 a.m. and mentally talk to myself as encouragement and that helped make it easy in my mind. It never turned out that way, of course. It was always brutal, to the point where I'd go, "I think I felt the muscle tear off the bone. I think we should stop, Tony (Martinez)." And he's say, "You'll be okay. Rub it a little bit and you'll be fine." But I was good at talking myself into the idea of squatting, even though I knew the reality."

I'd put on my lifting shoes - I wore Adidas weightlifting shoes with a higher heel that tapered down to a thin sole - and they were part of my experience, physically and psychologically. I mean, would you go ice-skating without blades? Lifting shoes were that for me: an important piece of the puzzle that made my workout the experience that it was.

So I'd put on my shoes, grab my gear and drive from Malibu to Venice in my 1960 Corvette. As I pulled out of the garage the throaty rumble of the powerful engine would blend  into my psyche and become part of my preparation as I drove. I'd purposely drive by the ocean to watch the waves smash powerfully against the rocks. If I thought about the workout too much, I'd get sweaty palms on the way to the gym and couldn't grip the steering wheel. Watching the ocean helped distract, and prepare me.

I'd pull into Gold's in Venice. It wasn't busy like it is today. There were only a few of us there, especially that early. And, of course, Tony would be there waiting for me, ready for the workout.

We'd go to the squat rack and I remember always stretching in front of the rack. I'd take the hurdler's position on the floor - one leg bent, the other straight - then lower my nose to my knee. As I stretched out I'd try to ease my mind, convince myself I was there to have fun, to just do one or two sets and call it quits. Sometimes we'd even cover the mirror with newspaper because I didn't want to see myself squat. I just wanted to feel it and experience it within my own being.
Of course this pre-workout time wasn't only about the stretching; it was also about emotionally and physically preparing for what was about to come. I'd touch the weights, the rack, the bar, and I'd have this almost religious reverence for them. I liked to use an old battered bar, slightly bent just enough so that it didn't roll off my shoulders when I was standing erect. I'd marked it with a plate, banged the plate on the collar so that I could remember which one it was, and I always wrapped a towel around the bar before I started my sets.

Done stretching, I'd put on my lifting belt - a little loose so that I could breathe - and Tony and I would warm up real slow. A set at 135 for 10 easy reps. Add another plate, nice and easy. Then we'd listen to Motown and we'd start progressing with the weight. Now 315. I'd leave space between the plates on purpose so when I came up from the squat, a real quick rep, the plates would jingle. The sound was very important to me. The music, the Motown and the plates jingling against one another - big, thick, 45-pound iron plates. That sound helped me time the reps and my movement. I liked to come up quickly with such speed that the bar would bend over my shoulders and the plates would crash together, and I relished that sensation! I'd do a quick 20 reps with 315 with all my senses focused.

One more 45 per side and Tony would put the collars on, knowing the exact space to get that sound. Tony would count off my reps . . . 10 . . . 20 . . . 30 - let's see how far we can go! When I'd get to the point where I couldn't do any more reps, Tony would say something like, "You OWN this exercise!" or "Go after it and GET IT!" He would conjure up six, eight, 10, 20 more reps out of me. Then I'd literally fall into the squat rack and jing! The plates would rattle and I'd fall to the floor. I'd take the belt off and all of a sudden I was gasping for air and I couldn't breathe. It felt like someone was driving knives into my legs, and my heart rate went through the roof. I couldn't see, I was sweating profusely, but eventually I'd come back.

Sometimes it took me 20 minutes, but I always came back. When I could see properly again I'd go outside and breathe some fresh air, then come back in and say, "Okay, Tony, one more set!" And we'd go again.

On those days when I left the gym I was high. I thought, "I lived through this. I got through this. I can do anything in life." I'd keep my belt on loosely and walk to the car, thinking victory. I was one with my spirit and with God.

I trained legs every week, but the squats were so exhausting that I couldn't walk afterward and doing another exercise was simply out of the question. So I squatted twice a month and did other 'accessory' machine movements like leg extensions, leg curls, and hack squats on alternate weeks.

Leg Extensions

Back in the mid-80s this guy named Magic, who lived in a yellow school bus behind Gold's gym, made me a  special lifting belt to strap myself into place onto the old leg extension at Gold's - the original one Joe Gold had made that Arnold, Draper, Zane, Corney and all of my mentor figures had used. I'd hurt my arm - I tore the biceps tendon off the bone - and although it had been repaired, hanging onto the leg extension machine put a lot of stress on my arm. The old machine was just a seat with no back and a bicycle chain attached to the weight stack. It was antiquated, even at that time, but I liked it because I felt Draper's fingerprints on it. A lot of people had no idea how to use the machine because it didn't have a back on it, but I knew. All I had to do was look at that machine and my legs grew.

I'd lock myself into the machine (using the belt Magic made), and hook my feet under the pad. I'd warm up with some light weight, like half a stack for a set of 10. Then I had this old, bent, beat-up pin that I'd put underneath the whole stack and hand a 100-pound plate off. Tony's job was to make sure that plate didn't fall of while I was doing my reps! Then I'd start: I'd pull this weight stack with the 100-pound plate as forcefully as I could up in the air, accelerating through the whole movement. Because the machine had to back, I'd lean forward, grab the back of the machine and at this point I was almost parallel to the floor! Then I'd lower the stack and plate back to the start, controlling its descent as I sat back up. A jackknife. Rep after rep, I'd feel the tension accumulating in my muscles. And when I dropped the weight at the bottom it'd bounce on the springs of the machine. I'd lift it again and my legs would light on fire. The intensity and the tension were indicative that growth was imminent. Separation, clarity, distinction, quality -- all the freaky stuff I lived for would be forthcoming.

I'd get 8-10 reps for the first 5 sets, then maybe 2-5 reps for the next 5. When I say 8-10 or 2-5,that's reps done on my own; I'm not counting the 15-20 forced reps -- baby reps, partial reps, negatives -- that Tony would assist me with. I'd raise the machine arm as high as I possibly could so that my quads were fully contracted. Then Tony would push down, in pulses almost, on the machine arm and I'd resist his pressure. He'd repeatedly push down,then let go, and I would bring it back up as high as I could. The weight would slowly get lower and lower because I was getting fatigued,and finally about 6 to 7 minutes later the set would be done. It was like a long, extended negative set with little pushes and pulls throughout. And that was just one set.

When the set was over I'd be in extreme pain, writhing around. And it was like an operation to get me out of that machine as a few guys unbuckled me and took the chains and straps off. Then I'd get up and hang onto the machine and gasp for air. But after a minute or two, Tony would look at me and say, "You ready? Let's go." And he'd lock me back into place again and I'd do 6-10 more sets.




Lying Leg Curls
I'd always do lying leg curls at the completion or our workout. We used the old Nautilus leg curl machine -- the one with a bicycle chain that made a ton of noise -- of course! Again, a very antiquated machine but the most effective one of all time, I believe. It's long gone but I still remember how it used to feel.

Because we did leg curls at the end of the workout, I was pretty tired and could only do like 1-4 sets, but I'd change it up to achieve failure. Sometimes I'd do 50 reps with moderate weight, or I'd use tons of weight for only 3 reps. The workouts depended on my mood and my level of exhaustion.

For the curls I'd do a number of reps on my own, then I'd have Tony grab my ankles and push down very, very slowly. I'd fight back the whole time and the negative part of the set might last a whole minute. Two sets like that and I was finished.

Hack Squats
Hack squats were very, very meaningful in terms of bringing out the sweep in my quads. Initially when I was developing my training protocol I tried to do hacks after my barbell squats. But because I could barely walk after squatting I had no strength to do them, so I did the hacks on alternate weeks, too.

In the machine, I was taught to put my heels together and point my toes out. That way you primarily squat on the lateral edge of your foot, putting tension on the vastus lateralis, which gives the thighs a sweep.

I'd do a warmup set with a few plates on each side to get my head on right -- of course leaving some space between the plates so they'd jingle and give me that sound I loved -- then I'd do hack squats until I couldn't do any more. Sometimes I'd have four 45-pound plates on each side for 8-10 reps. Other times I'd have a quarter or a dime on their for 50 reps. The weight didn't matter. I'd go for that mental connection to my body and my legs. I wanted to feel and grow that tension to the point where I knew it was going to be effective in the muscles becoming larger, more striated or more substantial.

I'd do several reps on my own, then I'd have Tony push down on the machine while I'd do partial reps. Or sometimes I'd have Tony sit on the machine, hang onto it and pull, and I'd do baby reps, partial reps, isometrics and negatives. Whatever it took to completely exhaust the muscles to the point of absolute failure -- then go beyond that into the red zone. We'd do a total of about 6-10 sets of hack squats.

------------------------------------------
Want to know my most trusted supplement resource?
The book below is Vic's Bible!

CLICK HERE TO BUY
That would be your greatest investment!
I am an affiliate of examine.com. If you buy the book I get a little
commission. This allows me to bring you more great FREE articles.
Science delivered to your doorstep from someone who does the research in the exercise/ nutrition lab, who lifts and understands your needs.
------------------------------------------

Join us for discussions on our facebook group
Free advice & daily bodybuilding talk
Your #1 Bodybuilding destination in Mauritius 

_________________________________________________________________________
©,2013, Veeraj Goyaram, Bodybuilding Mauritius. Any reprinting in any type of media is prohibited.
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Varieties of Deadlifting by John Grimek (1962)

Old School Training Series

Varieties of Deadlifting
by John Grimek (1962)
 In spite of some opposition to the deadlift by a few authorities in the past, the deadlift is still one of the finest exercises for any barbell man to include in his training. But the name "deadlift" has a strange, ominous ring to all who are not familiar with weight training, although many comedians have kicked it around here and there and gotten some laughs with it. In spite of its name being the butt of an occasional joke there are many varieties of this exercise that exert tremendous influence upon the body when employed regularly, either as a muscle and strength developer or a remedial exercise.
Art Weige, who was a very good deadlifter for a tall man, 
lifting a heavy weight in the old York gym.
For some reason the importance of this exercise over the years has been overlooked, and today only a small proportion of all weight lifters include this movement regularly in their training. The few who employ it do so primarily as a back strengthener and conditioner. Many bodybuilders have the impression that it has no particular value for them. This conclusion is wholly unjustified. Those who share this conclusion are foolishly depriving themselves of a fine exercise. However, when this exercise, the regular deadlift, is used faithfully it has exceptional merits in keeping the back strong and the spine flexible . . . something we all need.
Steve Reeves, with his long arms and wide shoulders
doing one of his favorite forms of deadlifting
holding the rim of each plate.
Actually the deadlift is one of the oldest exercises known in body culture. At one time this exercise appeared in all training courses, most of which proclaimed it to be the finest all-round exercise for the body, putting greater emphasis on it as a back conditioner and overall power builder. And even today among the better informed this opinion still exists; only actual lifting movements are comparable. When this exercise is worked regularly it serves to develop those two cable-like muscles, the erector spinea, that run along each side of the spine (from the head down to the hips) better than any other exercise except, and I repeat, the quick lifting movements. All these movements and exercises, such as the deadlift, serve to develop and strengthen the entire back. This is important since this is the region where weakness is first felt by most persons. Yet this region can be kept strong and flexible throughout life with proper training, and especially with some of the exercises mentioned here.
Tommy Kono illustrates the isometric deadlift on the power rack.
The real truth of the matter is that very few people give their backs any consideration. It is only when they get "laid up" with a backache that they begin to realize the necessity of keeping the back strong and flexible. Exercise is always thought of by the uninitiated as a means to fight off accumulated weight to which most of us are so easily susceptible in this society, but exercise is just as important in keeping the muscles toned up and strong so they can oppose the pull of gravity upon the body. Once the muscles lose their tonicity they are subjected to many injuries, and the muscles of the back seem to be the most prone to injury when we choose to allow them to weaken. This weakness is reflected in the numerous cases of ruptured disks we so frequently hear about these days. But if the muscles along the spine and sides were kept strong such back conditions would be much less frequent. And when there is weakness in the lower back the pressure between the vertebrae is increased, thus breaking down the disks and resulting in what is commonly known as a "ruptured disk." Confinement with traction usually follows, augmented by heat, massage and medication. When improvement fails, surgery is often called for, with varying results.
Ron Lacy, Mr. America 1957, shown doing the stiff legged deadlift from the floor. 
Most people are unaware that the spinal column is made up of approximately 33 vertebrae and arranged in such a way as to provide maximum bending movement in all these segments except the coccyx region. Each vertebra is bound and kept in place by strong ligaments. Through this column passes the spinal cord, the nervous system of the body, with nerves passing through this column to every section of the body. Any subluxation of the spine can cause pain, making any movement very uncomfortable. Strengthening the muscles in and around this area will help to keep the back in better condition and thus prevent future backache. As pointed out earlier this can be accomplished with the deadlift variations given herein, all of which work these muscles and will safeguard you from back miseries.
140 pounder, Art Neiss, lifting 460 at Muscle Beach, Santa Monica, California.
Naturally the question of body proportions and structure governs anyone's ability to perform a commendable deadlift. A fellow with proportionately long arms, regardless of height, will always outlift the shorter armed fellow if both are of approximately the same strength (and determination). His longer arms allow him to get into a better position to pull on the weight; neither does he have to lift the weight as high, but just barely above the knees. For a time many were of the opinion that fellows with shorter legs and longer upper bodies would make the ideal deadlifters. I always doubted this. Instead I felt that a man with longer legs and a shorter back would be better suited for lifting heavier poundages in this lift. My reason for this conclusion, and you'll probably agree with me if you analyze the movement, is that most of the lifting is done with the legs, and a shorter back with longer legs permits a better position to be assumed for making a heavy deadlift. And because the torso is shorter less strain is placed on the back in straightening up. A fine example of this was the featherweight lifter John Terry. At a bodyweight of slightly over 130 pounds  he deadlifted around 600. Terry wasn't a tall man by any means - around 5'2" - but his legs were long for his height, as were his arms. His arm span equaled that of the average 5'10" man, and when he completed the deadlift the weight was only an inch or two above his knees.

In fact, most men with longer backs are more flexible than those who are shorter in this region. This explains why so many longer legged fellows are unable to touch their toes (unless they have unusually long arms) as the shorter men can do. Many long legged men are unable to lower the weight past their toes in the stiff legged deadlift, while those with longer torsos can do this without too much trouble. Consequently, body mechanics do help to make it easier for one individual to do the stiff legged deadlift, while another finds the regular style of deadlifting easier and more appropriate. 
Left: Harry Johnson, Mr. America 1959, uses a high bench for stiff legged deadlifts.
Right: George Shandor does the exercise with a low bench. 

Some bodybuilding authorities in the past had the opinion that too much stretching and stiff legged deadlifting help to overstretch the spine and the ligaments that bind the vertebrae. Personally, I don't think this is a serious as it may sound. Actually, all the muscles, tendons, and ligaments become stronger with use, and if this is ever overdone an injury is likely to result, not merely an overstretching of these parts. Nevertheless, there is no point in overdoing any exercise. The object of regulated training should be towards the improvement of the body, and not to injure or debilitate it!
O.B. Smith of Kansas City
regular deadlifting for power with over 550 pounds.

Let us analyze some of the methods of deadlifting exercises and learn which muscles such exercises activate.

Regular Deadlift: in this lift the back, legs and hips bear the brunt of the movement. Also activated are the shoulders, trapezius, biceps, abdomen and the grip.

Stiff Legged Deadlift: All the muscles mentioned in the previous lift, plus the buttocks and all the muscles located on the rear of the legs from the buttocks down to the heels.

Bendover or Good Morning Exercise: This one is similar to the stiff legged variety so far as similar muscles are concerned, but less weight is used to accomplish this. Because the weight is held on the shoulders behind the neck the leverage is vastly increased. Certain individuals prefer this variety to the stiff legged deadlift. Both are good developing exercises.

Deadlift by Holding Rims of Plates: A fine novelty of the regular deadlift that requires strong fingers and an exceptional arm span. Affects almost the same muscles as the regular deadlift, though the latissimus dorsi is involved somewhat. Grip and arm span remain a big factor in this lift.

Straddle Deadlift: Some men can do more in this variety than in the regular deadlift. You begin in exactly the same way as you would in doing the straddle (Jefferson) lift, except the weight is lowered until it touches the floor and the back is rounded. Although the upper and lower sections are strongly involved, the legs and trapezius are vigorously involved.

Isometric Deadlift: All muscles as described above in all varieties.
  
Now, which exercises among this group should you do? That's entirely up to you and what you wish to accomplish. You may have noticed that most lifters use either the regular deadlift, the straddle type of deadlift, and isometric pulls for power building. Bodybuilders, on the other hand, favor the stiff legged variety because it reacts favorably upon the muscles and is an excellent conditioner. In any case, if you want to keep your back strong, flexible and free from annoying misery, now and in the future, this is the time to start and continue to exercise your back regularly.
Gene Neil, first man in North Carolina to deadlift 700 pounds.

It's always a good idea to finish off your deadlifting with an extra strong pull on the power rack, or to handle a weight that is near your limit. However, and I want to emphasize this point, always warm up your back before attempting anything that is near your limit. The powerful muscles of the back respond best, for bodybuilding purposes, when 8-10 repetitions are used, even more in some cases. But for strengthening purposes and building overall power, 1 to 5 reps with limit poundages and repeated for 3 or more sets should be used.

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